Geologic Map Of The Elk City Quadrangle, Idaho
Topographic Map Of The Vicinity Of Pine Creek Mine Showing The Locations Of Groundwater Samples Taken From The Literature And Agency File Search And Data Collection Program.
Four papers on existing technology and program planning for blowout control in geothermal and geopressured systems are included. Separate abstracts were prepared for each. (MHR)
The Bureau of Mines conducted a series of in situ linear polarization measurements in high-temperature, high-pressure hypersaline geothermal brines at the Bureau of Mines Geothermal Test Facility in the Imperial Valley of California. The measurements represented an evaluation of the linear polarization technique for obtaining instantaneous corrosion rates of materials of construction in flowing hypersaline hydrothermal fluids that rapidly form scales on exposed surfaces. A special method was devised for use with the linear polarization technique that resulted in obtaining corrosion rates for 1020 carbon steel, 316 and 430 stainless steel, titanium, various nickel-based alloys, and aluminum 6061 under strong scale-forming conditions. The measurements also provided information on scale-deposition rates in various geothermal environments. Exploratory in situ potentiostatic polarization measurements were made in the flowing brines to qualitatively determine scale-deposition effects on the electrochemical measurements
Research was expanded to the drilling of crystalline rock. Advance rates of 40 inches per minute have been achieved at 16,000 psi, 10 gpm flow rate in a 30,000 psi compressive strength rock using the water alone as the drilling mechanism. The quality of the hole achieved as the jet drilled a variety of rock was found to vary and a hydromechanical drilling bit, combining high pressure water jets with roller cones, has been developed. A field drilling unit has been tested and modified to allow the drilling of holes to 3/sup 1///sub 2/ inch diameter using the hydromechanical drill. Preliminary work on the development of a cavitation test for rock is also included.
Activities performed during calendar year 1979 for the hardware system development and testing task are presented. The fluidized bed technology was applied to the drying of potato by-products and to the exchange of heat to air in the space heating experiment. Geothermal water was flashed to steam and also used as the prime energy source in the steam distillation of peppermint oil. Geothermal water temperatures as low as 112.8/sup 0/C were utilized to distill alcohol from sugar beet juice, and lower temperature water provided air conditioning through an absorption air conditioning system. These experiments are discussed.
The first phase of an experiment using geothermal water for irrigation is described and preliminary results are discussed. The water was from a moderate temperature well, having salinity of about 2000 ppM, and is considered characteristic of the types of geothermal fluids that will be obtained from the young volcanic/young sediment formations of the northern intermountain west. The activity was completed at a location adjacent to ERDA's Raft River Geothermal Project in southern Idaho. About 12.5 acres, of which part had no previous cultivation, were subdivided by crops and irrigation practices for investigation with the geothermal water and a control comparison water from the relatively pure Raft River. Flood and sprinkler application techniques were used and wheat, barley, oats, grasses, alfalfa, potatoes, and garden vegetables were successfully grown. An accompanying experiment evaluated the behavior of an established alfalfa crop located nearby, when most of the irrigation water was geothermal. The experiment addressed heavy metal uptake in plants, plant fluoride retention and damage, plant tolerances to salts, soil alterations and other behavior as a result of the geothermal fluids, all of which were largely believed to eliminate geothermal water from contention for crop growing utilization. Not all analyses and results are complete in this reporting, but first results indicate no apparent difference between the geothermal watered crops and those obtained using the fresh water control. Extensive chemical analyses, neutron activation analyses, and other evaluations of crop samples are discussed, and some of the findings are presented. Although evaluation of crop yields was not an objective, extrapolations from samples indicate that yield results were comparable to those commonly found in the area, and the yield varied little between water sources. (JGB)
The geological and geophysical characteristics of hot dry rock (HDR) necessary for an effective exploration program were discussed. The type of HDR project discussed, that being developed by the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL), would utilize hydraulic fracturing to develop a large surface area in rock of low permeability, 10/sup -6/ darcys, and at temperatures greater than 200/sup 0/C. A better definition of the thermal regime in the crust and mantle at reconnaissance (hundreds to tens of kilometers) and exploration (tens of kilometers to 1 km) scales is needed. Geophysical methods capable of deep investigation would be used with the near-surface geologic information to extrapolate conditions at the depth of interest. Detection of HDR per se may be difficult because the contrast in physical properties of HDR and other rock is not always unambiguous, but boundaries between rock environments can be delineated. When patterns and coincidence of various types of geophysical anomalies and geologic maps are used, the probability of the detection of HDR is greatly increased, especially when a consistent picture is described. Various geophysical methods are required to detect these anomalies: (a) electromagnetic techniques can map deep electrically conductive structures, which to some extent can be used to infer isotherms. (b) Bouguer gravity maps corrected for regional topography are found to correlate with large silicic intrusive bodies, which are often associated with high heat flow. (c) isotherms and open crack systems at depth can be inferred from seismic wave attenuations, dispersions, and delay times. (d) heat flow measurements are useful as a primary tool and as a check on the results of other methods. Abstracts for individual presentations by the twelve panel members are included. 111 references.
Coso Geothermal Exploratory Hole No. 1 (CGEH No. 1) is the first deep exploratory hole drilled in the Coso Hot Springs area of Southeastern California. CGEH No. 1 was drilled to a depth of 4,845 ft in the central area of a large thermal anomaly and was a continuation of investigative work in that locale to determine the existence of a geothermal resource. The drilling and completion of CGEH No. 1 is described. Also included are the daily drilling reports, drill bit records, descriptions of the casing, cementing, logging and coring program, and the containment equipment used during the drilling operation.
During fiscal year 1981, activities of the Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy Development Program were concentrated in four principal areas: (1) data collection to permit improved estimates of the hot dry rock geothermal energy resource base of various regions of the United States and of the United States as a whole, combined with detailed investigations of several areas that appear particularly promising either for further energy extraction experiments or for future commercial development; (2) successful completion of a 9-month, continuous, closed-loop, recirculating flow test in the enlarged Phase I System at Fenton Hill, New Mexico - a pressurized-water heat-extraction loop developed in low-permeability granitic rock by hydraulic fracturing; (3) successful completion at a depth of 4084 m (13,933 ft) of well EE-3, the production well of a larger, deeper, and hotter, Phase II System at Fenton Hill. Well EE-3 was directionally drilled with control of both azimuth and inclination. Its inclined section is about 380 m (1250 ft) vertically above the injection well, EE-2, which was completed in FY80; and (4) supporting activities included new developments in downhole instrumentation and equipment, geochemical and geophysical studies, rock-mechanics and fluid-mechanics investigations, computer analyses and modeling, and overall system design. Under an International Energy Agency agreement, the New Energy Development Organization, representing the Government of Japan has joined Kernforschungsanlage-Juelich GmbH, representing the Federal Republic of Germany, and the US Department of Energy as an active participant in the Fenton Hill Hot Dry Rock Project.
USGS Profesional Paper 1044-E,Publication on thermal springs in nine areas of the Appalachians from Georgia to New York that were studied in 1975 and 1976 using satellite imagery, local well, and spring data. To download this resource Report PDF, please see the link provided.
Experiments were run to determine heat transfer performance of single vertical fluted tubes with selected fluids condensing on the outside. Working fluids included six fluorocarbons (Refrigerants 11, 21, 22, 113, 114, and 115) and a hydrocarbon (Refrigerant 600a or isobutane). The nine test tubes were of 2.54-cm (1-in.) nominal outside diameter and 1.2 m (4 ft) in length with from 0 (smooth) to 60 axial flutes. Condensing heat transfer coefficients ranged from 620 to 7900 W/m/sup 2/ . K (110 to 1400 Btu/hr . ft/sup 2/ . /sup 0/F) over the heat flux range of 2000 to 43,000 W/m/sup 2/ (920 to 13,600 Btu/hr . ft/sup 2/). All parameters are based on total condensing surface area. The data show that, for a given heat flux, a fluted tube can increase condensing coefficients up to 6.0 times smooth tube values. Further heat transfer enhancement was achieved by the use of drainage skirts on fluted tubes; these skirts effectively divided the 1.2-m (4-ft) tubes into two, four, and eight equal condensing lengths.
Seven major site specific development plans are listed including a brief synopsis of each. Work on area development plans, institutional and economic assessments, an outreach program, and the preparation of a state geothermal plan is described briefly. (MHR)
Overview of geothermal development in the U.S. in 1979.
Report prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy, Division of Geothermal Energy; resources assessed are purely hydrothermal