Reconnaissance geologic map of the Slumbering Hills and surrounding areas, Humboldt County, Nevada 1:100,000-scale: Dufurrena and Rigby.
ABSTRACT - The Dixie Valley injection system has been operational for 3 1/4 years and disperses injectate into the reservoir through three distinct geological environments. Short-
term step-rate injection tests underestimated the long- term injectivity of some of the injectors requiring additional injectors to be drilled. Liberal use of surface discharge over three years allowed orderly development of an eight-well injection system that provides pressure support for nine production wells but has not yet resulted in any cooling problems.
The Florida Canyon facility owned by ElectraTherm, generates electricity using geothermal energy, this is a resource compliant with the AASG Geothermal Power Plant Feature template, and is part of a compilation datasets of Geothermal Power Plants in Nevada. This data is compiled by the Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, published as a Web feature service, a web map service, an ESRI service and as an Excel spreadsheet for the National Geothermal Data System. The document contains 5 worksheets, including information about the template, notes related to revisions of the template, resource provider information, the data, a field list (data mapping view) and vocabularies used to populate the data worksheet (data valid terms).
Maps of Great Basin groundwater geochemistry show distinctive regional spatial patterns. Factors affecting the concentrations of dissolved constituents include bedrock lithology, location within structural zones, geothermal systems, and surficial playa deposits and salt lakes. In this study, a large geochemical database of ~51,577 Great Basin groundwater samples from springs and wells was compiled from multiple sources. These data were uploaded into a geographic information system (GIS) and used to produce concentration maps for As, B, Ba, Ca, Cl, F, Fe, HCO3, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, SiO2, and SO4. These maps were then examined to identify geologic factors that might have influenced their concentration, including the presence of geothermal systems.
Low-enthalpy geothermal resources have not been utilized to their potential in the past. However, since vast tracts of low-enthalpy geothermal resources exist as energy in the form of differential temperatures, the reserves are estimated to be enormous. As a result, there is growing interest in using this untapped energy in order to reduce carbon dioxide emissions which are the main cause for global warming, one of todays most serious issues as addressed by the U.S. Department of Energy and Environmental Protection Agency documents.
There has been a surge of interest in electric power generation from low-temperature geothermal energy. The organic Rankine cycle is reviewed for efficiency. A pressure-enthalpy diagram for R-114 (the refrigerant chosen for this study) is given. In the cycle, refrigerant is vaporized, then expanded, to turn the shaft, then condensed, then pumped back into the cycle. The cycle depends on the difference between the evaporating pressure and the condensing pressure. The higher the geothermal water temperature, and the lower the cooling water temperature, the higher the work. Heat loss due to radiation and convection, the movement of refrigerant fluid through the evaporator, in the conversion of expanded power to electrical power, and in use of some actual produced power to pump the cooling water and drive the tower fans--all these heat losses are calculated. The overall saleable power efficiency of the cycle is determined. The efficiency is low, but the binary generator can find a place in a carefully conceived process.
Reykjavik District Heating Services (Hitaveita Reykjavilcur) was established in 1930. It started small but it has grown continuously and now serves 140,000 inhabitants of Iceland, i.e., 57% of the nation. The Hitaveita uses four different low temperature fields and one high temperature field. The water from the low temperature field is used directly in the radiators and as tap water; but, the energy from the high temperature field is used to heat up fresh water. The energy from the Hitaveita is mainly used for space heating. The cost of the energy is 1.5 cents/kWh and the exploitation of geothermal energy has low environmental impact, especially the low temperature fields. The nearest alternative energy options are electricity and fossil fuels. The cost of heat from those sources is over 5 cents/kWh and the negative impact from those is supposed to be larger than from the geothermal. The conclusion is, therefore, that geothermal energy has economical and environmental advantages the alternative energy sources can not compete with.
Bibliographic Data file of current published searches from NTIS OIC Library ID#: oitGHC_0723-01.
Four papers on existing technology and program planning for blowout control in geothermal and geopressured systems are included. Separate abstracts were prepared for each. (MHR)
It is possible to design a canister to cool a borehole gravimeter for Use in geothermal and high-temperature (up to 350/sup 0/C) gas Wells. Repeat surveys with such a gravimeter could (1) help estimate the extent of reservoir plugging in geothermal injection Well after One year of operation and (2) detect compaction of a geothermal aquifer if the change in thickness of the aquifer exceeds 1 m. The instrument could be Used together with conventional logging tools to evaluate radial dependence of density around a Well, or to estimate gas-filled porosity around Wells Drilled with mud. A high-temperature borehole gravimeter could also be Used to evaluate structure and stratigraphy around geothermal and high-temperature gas Wells. Library ID#=oitGHC_0344-01.
Far from the Seismic Belt, and tectonically tranquil, Britain is one of the last countries where one would expect to find signs of geothermal development. It is true that at present such signs are modest; but a start has been made and it now looks as though some useful achievements may result quite soon. Only a few years ago France was thought of as a geothermally barren land; but now something approaching 25,000 dwellings, about 50,000 m2 of greenhouses and some commercial and administrative buildings are being heated by hot underground waters in the vicinity of Paris, while very ambitious plans are afoot for further direct applications of earth heat in other parts of France.
Onion dehydration consists of a continuous operation, belt conveyor using fairly low-temperature hot air from 38 - 104 deg C. Typical processing plants will handle 4500 kg of raw product per hour (single line), reducing the moisture from around 83% to 4% (680 to 820 kg - 1,500 to 1,800 pounds of finished product). An example of a geothermal processing plant is Integrate Ingredients at Empire, Nevada, in the San Emidio Desert. A total of 6.3 million kg (14 million pounds) of dry product are produced annually: 60% onion and 40% garlic. A 130 deg C well provides the necessary heat for the plant.
Research was expanded to the drilling of crystalline rock. Advance rates of 40 inches per minute have been achieved at 16,000 psi, 10 gpm flow rate in a 30,000 psi compressive strength rock using the water alone as the drilling mechanism. The quality of the hole achieved as the jet drilled a variety of rock was found to vary and a hydromechanical drilling bit, combining high pressure water jets with roller cones, has been developed. A field drilling unit has been tested and modified to allow the drilling of holes to 3/sup 1///sub 2/ inch diameter using the hydromechanical drill. Preliminary work on the development of a cavitation test for rock is also included.
A skid mounted test facility has been built for determining conditions at which CO2 flashes from geothermal brines. The system has been checked and operated at one geothermal plant. It performed as designed. The equipment is designed to operate at temperatures and pressures typical of wells near Heber, California. (Nominally IS0C and 300-500 psig). It has heat exchangers which can cool the brine to less than 70C. (The cooling water is re-circulated after being cooled by a forced air heat exchanger). Breakout pressures can be determined for any temperature between 70C and wellhead temperature. OIC Library ID#: oitGHC_3033-01.
As part of a study of the springs of Utah, reconnaissance data were obtained on the thermal, chemical, and geologic characteristics of the major thermal springs of Utah.
reconnaissance data were obtained on the thermal,
chemical, and geologic characteristics of the major
thermal springs of Utah. Two springs in the State, Roosevelt and Abraham Hot Springs, are in what has been designated
as potentially valuable geothermal areas by the
U. S. Geological Survey. OIT Library ID # oitGHC_5501-01.